The Gyrotonic and Gyrokinesis methods are complementary exercise methods that fall under one umbrella- the GYROTONIC EXPANSION SYSTEM®. Both methods were developed by Juliu Horvath, an ethnic Hungarian, professional dancer from Romania. Horvath suffered a series of debilitating injuries during his dance career, and began developing what are now known as the Gyrotonic and Gyrokinesis Methods as a way to heal himself and regain his strength and agility.

Gyrotonic exercises are performed on custom-designed Gyrotonic equipment, whereas Gyrokinesis exercises are performed on a mat and chair. Both Gyrotonic and Gyrokinesis exercise sequences are composed of spiraling, circular movements, which flow together seamlessly in rhythmic repetitions, with corresponding breath. Each movement flows into the next, allowing the joints to move through a natural range of motion without jarring or compression. These carefully crafted sequences create balance, efficiency, strength and flexibility.

Since the thirty plus years since Horvath began developing the Gyrotonic and Gyrokinesis methods, the Gyrotonic Expansion System has grown to include a global community of over 7,800 Gyrotonic and Gyrokinesis Trainers teaching in 52 countries.

The Gyrotonic and Gyrokinesis methods are both highly adaptable, making them accessible to everyone, regardless of age or physical ability. Gyrotonic and Gyrokinesis students live in many parts of the world, and come from all walks of life. Accomplished athletes and dancers, college students, baby boomers, senior citizens, and people with disabilities–many have become devoted practicioners of Gyrotonic and Gyrokinesis exercise.

There are over 2,500 studios worldwide offering the Gyrotonic and Gyrokinesis methods. Classes are offered internationally, on an ongoing basis. Use our Studio Finder to locate the nearest studio offering Gyrotonic and/or Gyrokinesis classes. There are also two in-depth Teacher Training Programs for those interested in expanding their Gyrotonic or Gyrokinesis practice further by becoming teachers of the methods. You can locate teacher training courses with our International Course Finder.

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Bibliography for Gyrotonic/Gyrokinesis

Print Sources
  • Alexander, F. Matthias. Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual. Long Beach, CA: Centerline Press, 1923. 0-13111112
  • ________. The Universal Constant in Living. Long Beach, CA: Centerline Press, 1941. 0-913111-18X
  • ________. The Use of Self. Long Beach, CA: Centerline Press, 1932.
  • Baker, Sarah. The Alexander Technique: Learning to Use Your Body for Total Energy. New York: Bantam Books, 1991. 0-553-28827-X Simple and basic, by a theatre movement teacher. Originally published in 1978.
  • Barlow, Wilfred. The Alexander Principle. New York: Knopf, 1973.
  • ________. The Alexander Technique: How to Use Your Body Without Stress. Rochester: Inner Traditions International, Ltd., 1991. ISBN 0892813857 Diagrams and photos, covers principles (balance, rest, use and mis-use, and mental health) and practice (teaching, learning, applying).
  • ________. “Postural Homeostasis,” Annals of Physical Medicine I, July 1952: 77-89. Includes many before and after photos of students from a performing arts school in London using the technique.
  • Berjeron-Oliver, Sherry. Working Without Pain: Eliminate Repetitive Strain Injuries with Alexander Technique. Pacific Institute for Alexander Technique, 1997. ISBN 0965104702
  • Bouchard, Ed. Kinesthetic Ventures: Informed by the Works of F.M. Alexander, Stizlavski, Perrce & Freud. MESA Press, 1997. ISBN 0941938085
  • Bowden, G. C. F. Matthias Alexander and the Creative Advance of the Individual. London: L. N. Fowler, 1965. Includes a journal of lessons with Alexander.
  • Brennan, Richard. A Practical Introduction: Alexander Technique. Element Books, Incorporated, 1998. ISBN 186204158X
  • ________. Alexander Technique: Natural Poise for Health. Element Books, Incorporated, 1997. ISBN 186204046X
  • ________. The Alexander Technique Workbook. Rockport, MA: Element, Inc., 1992. 1-85230-346-8
  • Caplan, Deborah. Back Trouble: A New Approach to Prevention and Recovery. Gainesville, FL: Triad Publishing Company, 1987. 0-937404-26-8
  • Carrington, Walter. The Act of Living: Talks on the Alexander Technique. CA: Mornum Time Press, 1999. ISBN 0964435233 A book of lessons by one of the foremost teachers of the Alexander Techniques. Twenty-nine talks range widely in subject – from breathing and the balance of the head on the neck, to the pain of sciatica and the effect of gravity on our lives.
  • ________ and S. Carey. Explaining the Alexander Technique: The Writings of F. M. Alexander. London: The Sheldrake Press, 1992.
  • Carrington, Walter. “Balance as a Function of Intelligence,” Systematics, Vol. 7(March 1970).
  • ________. Thinking Aloud: Talks on Teaching the Alexander Technique. CA: Mornum Time Press, 1994. ISBN 0964435209 The first volume of talks by Walter Carrington. Originally designed for teachers and teachers-in-training, now in its third edition.
  • Conable, Barbara. How to Learn the Alexander Technique: A Manual for Students. Andover Road Press, 1995. ISBN 0962259543
  • Crow, Aileen. “The Alexander Technique as a Basic Approach to Theatrical Training,” in Lucille Rubin, ed. Movement for the Actor. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1980.
  • Craze, Richard. Teach Yourself Alexander Technique. UK: Teach Yourself Books, 1996. ISBN 0844231037 Includes exercises, guidelines, and case histories.
  • Dimon Jr., Theodore. The Undivided Self: Alexander Technique and the Control of Stress. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1999. ISBN 1556432941 Discusses Alexander and provides a brief history of other mind/body techniques.
  • Drake, Jonathan. Body Know-How: A Practical Guide to the Use of the Alexander Technique in Everyday Life. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991. 0-7225- 2394 7
  • Gelb, Michael J. Body Learning: An Introduction to the Alexander Technique. Henry Holt & Company, Incorporated, 1995. ISBN 0805042067 Includes good bibliography.
  • Hodgkinson, Liz. The Alexander Technique and How It Can Help You. London Bridge, 1996. ISBN 0861888073
  • Huxley, Aldous. Ends and Means. London: Chatto & Windus, 1940.
  • Jones, Frank Pierce. Freedom to Change. Mouritz, 1997. ISBN 0952557479 First published in 1976 as Body Awareness in Action, now under new title. A classic introduction to the Alexander Technique. Studied with F. M. Alexander and used laboratory experiments to analyze technique.
  • ________. “Method for Changing Stereotyped Response Patterns by the Inhibition of Certain Postural Sets,” Psychological Review 72(1965): 196-214.
  • ________. “Voice Production as a Function of Head Balance in Singers.” Journal of Psychology 82(1972): 209-215.
  • Kincaid, Linda Yvonne. "The Alexander Technique and Its Application to the Teaching of Ballet." PhD Dissertation, University of California, Irvine, 1981.
  • Leibowitz, Judith and Bill Connington. The Alexander Technique. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1990. 0-06-016053-5
  • Lewis, Pamela Payne. “The Alexander Technique: Its Relevance for Singers and Teachers of Singing.” PhD Dissertation, University of California, San Diego, 1980.
  • Maisel, Edward, ed. The Alexander Technique: Essential Writings of F. M. Alexander. New York: University Books, Carol Communications, 1989.
  • McGowan, Daniel. Alexander Technique: Original Writings of F.M. Alexander – Constructive Conscious Control. Larsons Publications, 1997. ISBN 0943914787
  • ________. Constructive Awareness: Alexander Technique & the Spiritual Quest. Larson Publications, 1997. ISBN 094391485X
  • MacDonald, Glynn. The Complete Illustrated Guide to Alexander Technique. Element Books, Incorporated, 1998. ISBN 1862042268
  • Masterson, Aisla. In a Nutshell: Alexander Technique. Element Books, Incorporated, 1998. ISBN 1862041954
  • Park, Glen. A New Approach to the Alexander Technique: Moving Toward a More Balanced Expression of the Whole Self. Crossing Press, Incorporated, 1998. ISBN 0895949180
  • Rickover, Robert. Fitness Without Stress: A Guide to the Alexander Technique. Portland, OR: Metamorphous Press, 1988.
  • Robinson, James Harvey. “The Philosopher’s Stone,” Atlantic Monthly, February 1918: 474-81.
  • Roth, Robert. “Recontextualizing Education Through the Physical: A Somatic Approach.” PhD Dissertation, University of California Los Angeles, 1990.
  • Sanfilippo, Phyllis. The Reader’s Guide to the Alexander Technique: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. Long Beach, CA: Centerline Press, 1987.
  • Schirle, Joan. “Acting & the Technique: Preparing a Role,” NASTAT NEWS, Issue No. 23(Winter 1994). From the newsletter of the North American Society of Teachers of the Alexander Technique.
  • Sontag, Jerry, ed. Curiosity Recaptured: Exploring Ways We Think and Move. CA: Mornum Press, 1997. ISBN 0964435225 A collection of 14 essays on activities ranging from theatre and dance, to voice and problem-solving.
  • Stevens, Chris. Alexander Technique. Charles E. Tuttle Company, Incorporated, 1994. ISBN 0804830061
  • ________. Alexander Technique: An Introductory Guide to the Technique and Its Benefits. Trafalgar Square, 1997. ISBN 0091809797
  • ________. Alternative Health: Alexander Technique. London: Macdonald Optima, 1988.
  • Stransky, Judith and Robert B. Stone. The Alexander Technique: Joy in the Life of Your Body. New York: Beaufort Books, 1981.
  • Westfeldt, Lulie. F. Matthias Alexander: The Man and His Work. Long Beach, CA: Centerline Press, 1986.
Audio/Visual Sources
  • Chance, Jeremy. Thorsons Principles of Alexander Technique: The Only Practical Introduction You’ll Ever Need. Thorsons Audio. ISBN 0722538375 A 90 minute audio tape covering physical and mental self-awareness and exercises.
  • Laurie, Sue. Alexander Work Tape with Sue Laurie. Audio tape available at the Royal National Theatre Bookshop in London.
Other Sources
  • Direction: A Journal of the Alexander Technique. For information call 1-800-344-4224
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